MAT 271 - Newton Basins

3046 days ago by kcrisman

Today, we'll go into the wacky behavior of Newton's method in more depth.  First, evaluate this cell of preliminaries.

def newt(func): vari = func.args()[0] fprime = diff(func,vari) return vari-func/fprime class RootFinder: def __init__(self, roots, newtf): self.newtf = newtf self.roots = roots self.cutoff = .1 def which_root(self,Varia): varia = Varia for counter in [0..19]: varia = self.newtf(varia) for root in self.roots: if (varia-root).abs()<self.cutoff: return root ls = [] for root in self.roots: ls.append((varia-root).abs()) return self.roots[ls.index(min(ls))] 

Now evaluate this cell.  Here, we are using color to identify which initial guesses will end up near which roots.  

Remember, the parameters are

  • The roots of the polynomial, as a list
  • The detail - how far apart we should look at guesses
  • The window we want to look in on on the $x$-axis

Notice that we don't want to ask Sage to guess what the roots are; instead, we create the polynomial by telling Sage what its roots are ahead of time.

@interact def _(roots = '-1,0,1',detail=.01,xmin=-2,xmax=2,auto_update=False): roots = eval('['+roots+']') colors = rainbow(len(roots)) f(x) = prod([x-r for r in roots]) html("The function is $f(x) = %s$"%latex(f(x).expand())) html("And the roots are ") for i in range(len(roots)): html("$%s$ in <font color=%s>this color</font>"%(roots[i],colors[i])) P = plot(f,(x,xmin,xmax),color='black') Finder = RootFinder(roots,newt(f)) f1 = Finder.which_root for t in srange(xmin,xmax,detail): P += point((t,0),color=colors[roots.index(f1(t))]) show(P) 

Click to the left again to hide and once more to show the dynamic interactive window

Questions you may enjoy asking:

  • Can we guarantee anything about what root is found?
  • Are there any polynomials which have strange behavior when you zoom in?
  • Are there any polynomials which do not have strange behavior?
  • Does the behavior depend on the number of roots?


But that is just a shadow of what is really happening!  Evaluate the next cell of preliminaries (which we redefine a few things, add a lot of them, and make them fast) and go on.

%cython from sage.rings.complex_double cimport ComplexDoubleElement cimport numpy as cnumpy from sage.plot.primitive import GraphicPrimitive from sage.misc.decorators import options from sage.misc.misc import srange from sage.symbolic.ring import var cdef inline ComplexDoubleElement new_CDF_element(double w, double v): cdef ComplexDoubleElement z = <ComplexDoubleElement>PY_NEW(ComplexDoubleElement) z._complex.dat[0] = w z._complex.dat[1] = v return z def complex_to_rgb(roots,z_values): """ INPUT: - ``z_values`` -- A grid of complex numbers, as a list of lists OUTPUT: An `N \\times M \\times 3` floating point Numpy array ``X``, where ``X[i,j]`` is an (r,g,b) tuple. EXAMPLES:: sage: from sage.plot.complex_plot import complex_to_rgb sage: complex_to_rgb([[0, 1, 1000]]) array([[[ 0. , 0. , 0. ], [ 0.77172568, 0. , 0. ], [ 1. , 0.64421177, 0.64421177]]]) sage: complex_to_rgb([[0, 1j, 1000j]]) array([[[ 0. , 0. , 0. ], [ 0.38586284, 0.77172568, 0. ], [ 0.82210588, 1. , 0.64421177]]]) """ import numpy cdef unsigned int i, j, imax, jmax, n cdef ComplexDoubleElement zz from sage.rings.complex_double import CDF from sage.plot.colors import rainbow imax = len(z_values) jmax = len(z_values[0]) cdef cnumpy.ndarray[cnumpy.float_t, ndim=3, mode='c'] rgb = numpy.empty(dtype=numpy.float, shape=(imax, jmax, 3)) n = len(roots) R = rainbow(n) R = [Color(col).rgb() for col in R] sig_on() for i from 0 <= i < imax: row = z_values[i] for j from 0 <= j < jmax: zz = row[j][0] alpha = mag_to_lightness(row[j][1]) try: color = R[roots.index(zz)] rgb[i, j, 0] = color[0]*alpha rgb[i, j, 1] = color[1]*alpha rgb[i, j, 2] = color[2]*alpha except: print zz sig_off() return rgb cdef extern from "math.h": double atan(double) double log(double) double sqrt(double) double PI cdef inline double mag_to_lightness(int r): """ Tweak this to adjust how the magnitude affects the color. For instance, changing ``sqrt(r)`` to ``r`` will cause anything near a zero to be much darker and poles to be much lighter, while ``r**(.25)`` would cause the reverse effect. INPUT: - ``r`` - a non-negative real number OUTPUT: A value between `-1` (black) and `+1` (white), inclusive. EXAMPLES: This tests it implicitly:: sage: from sage.plot.complex_plot import complex_to_rgb sage: complex_to_rgb([[0, 1, 10]]) array([[[ 0. , 0. , 0. ], [ 0.77172568, 0. , 0. ], [ 1. , 0.22134776, 0.22134776]]]) """ return .5*atan(log(r+1)) * (4/PI) def newt(func): vari = func.args()[0] fprime = diff(func,vari) return vari-func/fprime class BasinPlot(GraphicPrimitive): def __init__(self, roots, z_values, xrange, yrange, options): """ TESTS:: sage: p = complex_plot(lambda z: z^2-1, (-2, 2), (-2, 2)) """ self.roots = roots self.xrange = xrange self.yrange = yrange self.z_values = z_values self.x_count = len(z_values) self.y_count = len(z_values[0]) self.rgb_data = complex_to_rgb(roots,z_values) GraphicPrimitive.__init__(self, options) def get_minmax_data(self): """ Returns a dictionary with the bounding box data. EXAMPLES:: sage: p = complex_plot(lambda z: z, (-1, 2), (-3, 4)) sage: sorted(p.get_minmax_data().items()) [('xmax', 2.0), ('xmin', -1.0), ('ymax', 4.0), ('ymin', -3.0)] """ from sage.plot.plot import minmax_data return minmax_data(self.xrange, self.yrange, dict=True) def _allowed_options(self): """ TESTS:: sage: isinstance(complex_plot(lambda z: z, (-1,1), (-1,1))[0]._allowed_options(), dict) True """ return {'plot_points':'How many points to use for plotting precision', 'interpolation':'What interpolation method to use'} def _repr_(self): """ TESTS:: sage: isinstance(complex_plot(lambda z: z, (-1,1), (-1,1))[0]._repr_(), str) True """ return "BasinPlot defined by a %s x %s data grid"%(self.x_count, self.y_count) def _render_on_subplot(self, subplot): """ TESTS:: sage: complex_plot(lambda x: x^2, (-5, 5), (-5, 5)) """ options = self.options() x0,x1 = float(self.xrange[0]), float(self.xrange[1]) y0,y1 = float(self.yrange[0]), float(self.yrange[1]) subplot.imshow(self.rgb_data, origin='lower', extent=(x0,x1,y0,y1), interpolation=options['interpolation']) cdef class RootFinder: cdef list roots cdef object newtf cdef ComplexDoubleElement cutoff def __init__(self, roots, newtf): self.newtf = newtf self.roots = roots self.cutoff = CDF(.1) cpdef which_root(self,Varia): cdef int counter cdef ComplexDoubleElement root cdef ComplexDoubleElement varia = Varia for counter from 1<=counter<20: varia = self.newtf(varia) #print z for root in self.roots: if (<ComplexDoubleElement>varia._sub_(root)).abs()<self.cutoff: return root,counter cdef list ls = [] for root in self.roots: ls.append(varia._sub_(root).abs()) return self.roots[ls.index(min(ls))],20 @options(plot_points=3, interpolation='nearest') def basin_plot(list roots, xrange, yrange, **options): r""" ``complex_plot`` takes a complex function of one variable, `f(z)` and plots output of the function over the specified ``xrange`` and ``yrange`` as demonstrated below. The magnitude of the output is indicated by the brightness (with zero being black and infinity being white) while the argument is represented by the hue (with red being positive real, and increasing through orange, yellow, ... as the argument increases). ``complex_plot(f, (xmin, xmax), (ymin, ymax), ...)`` INPUT: - ``f`` -- a function of a single complex value `x + iy` - ``(xmin, xmax)`` -- 2-tuple, the range of ``x`` values - ``(ymin, ymax)`` -- 2-tuple, the range of ``y`` values The following inputs must all be passed in as named parameters: - ``plot_points`` -- integer (default: 100); number of points to plot in each direction of the grid - ``interpolation`` -- string (default: ``'catrom'``), the interpolation method to use: ``'bilinear'``, ``'bicubic'``, ``'spline16'``, ``'spline36'``, ``'quadric'``, ``'gaussian'``, ``'sinc'``, ``'bessel'``, ``'mitchell'``, ``'lanczos'``, ``'catrom'``, ``'hermite'``, ``'hanning'``, ``'hamming'``, ``'kaiser'`` """ from sage.plot.plot import Graphics from sage.plot.misc import setup_for_eval_on_grid from sage.ext.fast_callable import fast_callable from sage.rings.complex_double import CDF roots = [CDF(temp) for temp in roots] x = var('x') prefunc = prod([(x-root) for root in roots]) f = fast_callable(prefunc, domain=CDF, expect_one_var=True) newtf = fast_callable(newt(prefunc), domain=CDF, expect_one_var=True) cdef ComplexDoubleElement cutoff = CDF(1./10) cdef RootFinder Finder = RootFinder(roots,newtf) f1 = Finder.which_root cdef double t, u ignore, ranges = setup_for_eval_on_grid([], [xrange, yrange], options['plot_points']) xrange,yrange=[r[:2] for r in ranges] sig_on() z_values = [[ f1(new_CDF_element(t, u)) for t in srange(*ranges[0], include_endpoint=True)] for u in srange(*ranges[1], include_endpoint=True)] # print z_values sig_off() g = Graphics() g._set_extra_kwds(Graphics._extract_kwds_for_show(options, ignore=['xmin', 'xmax'])) g.add_primitive(BasinPlot(roots, z_values, xrange, yrange, options)) return g 

What we are going to do is look at the SAME question, but allow for the starting guess in Newton's method to be a complex number.  That is, we might allow $\sqrt{-5}+2$ or $-\sqrt{-1}$ as a starting guess.  However, otherwise we just let things proceed formally - you just do out the formula for NM, and happen to replace $i^2=-1$ and friends, otherwise leave everything.


This first plot is exactly the same as the first one, but in the complex setting.  Note that all of these will take some time because we're doing some serious number-crunching.


What is going on here?



At this point you know enough about Sage to know how to zoom in on certain spots, try out different roots for your polynomial, and so forth.   I'm not sure I recommend using more plot points, though - it's already quite a computation!

  • What happens with two roots?  
  • What happens with three?  What if they get closer or further from each other?   
    • Try to keep them at least 1/2 away from each other, just because I was lazy in the code and sort of hard-coded that in.
  • Or more roots? 
  • What images do you see when you zoom in?  

Here's just one that I tried.


This particular one is actually relatively boring - nearly all the little guys will look exactly like the big guys.  Try some more exotic ones!


Another great place to do exploring of this is David Joyce's web page about Newton basins (for so these things are called).